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托福阅读中的细节定位
范美优品国际学习中心   2012-05-18 11:07:15 作者:admin 来源: 文字大小:[][][]

托福阅读中的细节定位

很多学生都会认为托福阅读中的细节题、否定事实细节题、推理题等所要求的细节定位能力是很容易的。的确,如果给你60分钟做一篇文章,回答同样多数量的题目,我相信大部分同学的分数肯定要比之前的版本高许多。可现实条件就是20分钟内你必须看700-800字的文章并回答随后的13-14个问题。这当中,许多问题所考查的本质就是一个细节定位能力。那么如何在这么短的时间内做到快速定位是极其关键的,下面我们来探讨这个问题。

 

比如下面这个例题:


  Two species of deer have been prevalent in the Puget Sound area of Washington State in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The black-tailed deer, a lowland west-side cousin of the mule deer of eastern Washington, is now the most common. The other species, the Columbian white-tailed deer, in earlier times was common in the open prairie country, it is now restricted to the low, marshy islands and flood plains along the lower Columbia River.

 

According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true of the white-tailed deer of Puget Sound?

  A. It is native to lowlands and marshes.

  B. It is more closely related to the mule deer of eastern Washington than to other types of deer.

  C. It has replaced the black-tailed deer in the open prairie.

  D. It no longer lives in a particular type of habitat that it once occupied.

  

这是一个典型的细节题,在该题题干中,有的学生会选择Puget Sound作为关键词回原文定位,因为它是专有名词,在文中会比较显眼。但是如果一旦选择了这个地名,势必会定位在该段的第一句话。TOEFL细节题往往是定位在哪句就在哪句找答案,这样的话考生是选不出正确答案的,因为定位不精确。其实正确的关键词应该是white-tailed deer,这个用连字符连接的词在文章中也是比较醒目的,按该词定位应是该段最后一句话。所以根据它的意思应该选D项。其中A项与原句意思不符,BC都与定位句信息无关。

 

我们再来看另外一个否定事实细节题的例子:


  Plant communities assemble themselves flexibly, and their structure depends on the particular history of the area. Ecologists use the term “succession” to refer to the changes that happen in plant communities and ecosystems over time. The first community in a succession is called a pioneer community, while the long-lived community at the end of succession is called a climax community. Pioneer and successional plant communities are said to change over periods from 1 to 500 years. These changesin plant numbers and the mix of species—are cumulative. Climax communities themselves change but over periods of time greater than about 500 years.


According to paragraph 1, which of the following is NOT true of climax communities?

  A. They occur at the end of a succession.

  B. They last longer than any other type of community.

  C. The numbers of plants in them and the mix of species do not change

  D. They remain stable for at least 500 years at a time.

  

这个题大家都会选择用climax communities去定位,但在定位过程中会出现很多问题。首先考生要学会跳跃式定位,即根据文章中特殊的标点符号以及最醒目的词来搜索我们真正需要的关键词。文中的particular是加了阴影的,succession是在引号里面的,都非常醒目,通过看这两个词我们会发现它们附近没有我们需要的东西;再比较突出的就是数字及破折号,在第一个数字500的上方有a climax community,但它是单数,与题干关键词不完全匹配,细节题讲究的是精确定位,所以我们应该选择500后面的Climax communities,即该段的最后一句话。否定事实细节题的出题思路有两种:一是无中生有,即根据定位点的内容,四个选项只有一个没有提到,这种思路多适用于选项比较简短的题目;二是张冠李戴,即根据定位点的内容表述,只有一个选项与之矛盾,这种思路多适应于选项比较长的题目。就这个例题而言,根据定位的最后一句话,从表述上来说跟它相关的只有CD两个选项,D项的意思与原句相符,而C项与原句矛盾,所以正确答案是C